|06-23-2009, 11:14 AM||#1 (permalink)|
Üyelik tarihi: Jul 2008
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Jane Eyre by Charlotte Bronte kitap özeti
Jane Eyre was published in 1847 and is a form of fictionalised autobiography of its author. It follows the fortunes or lack thereof of the eponymous heroine who begins her life as a girl orphaned without a penny to her name. She is left in the care of her aunt, Mrs Reed, who treats her in an unfriendly and often a cruel manner. This leads to a spirited escape - taking Jane to the charitable Lowood Institution (Charlotte Brontл herself attended the similar Cowan Bridge institute). This alone was enough for the book to be considered unsuitable for young ladies - even though it never veers from the accepted moral codes of the period. After a time with the kind Miss Temple and a fellow orphan, Jane moves to a post teaching the illegitimate child of a Mr Rochester. This unconventional hero figure finds himself drawn to Jane not for her (plain) face but for her intellect and spark. The story follows the difficulties they face as the truth of Rochester's earlier marriage to a mad Creole woman emerge and the new life Jane attempts to make under the false impression that Rochester is an evil and heartless bigamist. The novel inspired the feminist criticism of the 1980s through Gilbert and Gulbar's The Madwoman in the Attic in which unstable female characters in such literature were presented as proof of the suppression of the feminine.
It is a cold, wet November afternoon when the novel opens at Gateshead, the home of Jane Eyre’s relatives, the Reeds. Jane and the Reed children, Eliza, John, and Georgiana sit in the drawing room. Jane’s aunt is angry with her, purposely excluding her from the rest of the family, so Jane sits alone in a window seat, reading Bewick’s History of British Birds.
As she quietly reads, her cousin John torments her, reminding her of her precarious position within the household. As orphaned niece of Mrs. Reed, she should not be allowed to live with gentlemen’s children. John throws a book at Jane and she calls him a “murderer” and “slave-driver.” The two children fight, and Jane is blamed for the quarrel. As punishment, she is banished to the red-room.
This opening chapter sets up two of the primary themes in the novel: class conflict and gender difference. As a poor orphan living with relatives, Jane feels alienated from the rest of the Reed family, and they certainly do nothing to make her feel more comfortable. John Reed says to Jane: “You have no business to take our books; you are a dependant, mamma says; you have no money; your father left you none; you ought to beg, and not to live here with gentleman’s children like us . . . .” John claims the rights of the gentleman, implying that Jane’s family was from a lower class. She appears to exist in a no-man’s land between the upper and servant classes. By calling John a “murderer,” “slave-driver” and “Roman emperor,” Jane emphasizes the corruption that is inherent in the ruling classes. Her class difference translates into physical difference, and Jane believes that she is physically inferior to the Reed children.
Jane’s argument with John also points to the potential gender conflicts within the text. Not only is Jane at a disadvantage because of her class status, but her position as female leaves her vulnerable to the rules of a patriarchal tyrant. John is an over-indulged only son, described by Jane as “unwholesome” and “thick,” someone who habitually gorges himself. Contrasting with Jane’s thin, modest appearance, John Reed is a picture of excess: his gluttony feeds his violent emotions, such as constant bullying and punishing of Jane. One of Jane’s goals throughout the book will be to create an individual place for herself, free of the tyrannies of her aunt’s class superiority and her cousin’s gender dominance. By fighting back when John and his mother torment her, Jane refuses the passivity that was expected for a woman in her class position.
Jane’s situation as she sits reading Bewick’s History of Birds provides significant imagery. The red curtains that enclose Jane in her isolated window seat connect with the imagery of the red-room to which Jane is banished at the end of the chapter. The color red is symbolic. Connoting fire and passion, red offers vitality, but also the potential to burn everything that comes in its way to ash. The symbolic energy of the red curtains contrast with the dreary November day that Jane watches outside her window: “a pale blank of mist and cloud.” Throughout the book, passion and fire will contrast with paleness and ice. Jane’s choice of books is also significant in this scene. Like a bird, she would like the freedom of flying away from the alienation she feels at the Reed’s house. The situation of the sea fowl that inhabit “solitary rocks and promontories,” is similar to Jane’s: Like them, she lives in isolation. The extreme climate of the birds’ homes in the Arctic, “that reservoir of frost and snow,” the “death-white realms,” again creates a contrast with the fire that explodes later in the chapter during John and Jane’s violent encounter.
Books provide Jane with an escape from her unhappy domestic situation. For Jane, each picture in Bewick’s tale offers a story that sparks her keen imagination. But Jane also says that the book reminds her of the tales that Bessie, one of the Reeds’ servants, sometimes tells on winter evenings. Books feed Jane’s imagination, offering her a vast world beyond the claustrophobia of Gateshead; they fill her with visions of how rich life could be, rather than how stagnant it actually is. Not a complacent little girl, Jane longs for love and adventure.
As she’s being dragged to the red-room, Jane resists her jailors, Bessie and Miss Abbott. After the servants have locked her in, Jane begins observing the red-room. It is the biggest and best room of the mansion, yet is rarely used because Uncle Reed died there.
Looking into a mirror, Jane compares her image to that of a strange fairy. The oddness of being in a death-chamber seems to have stimulated Jane’s imagination, and she feels superstitious about her surroundings. She’s also contemplative. Why, she wonders, is she always the outcast? The reader learns that Jane’s Uncle Reed—her mother’s brother—brought her into the household. On his deathbed, he made his wife promise to raise Jane as one of her own children, but obviously, this promise has not been kept.Suddenly, Jane feels a presence in the room and imagines it might be Mr. Reed, returning to earth to avenge his wife’s violation of his last wish. She screams and the servants come running into the room. Jane begs to be removed from the red-room, but neither the servants nor Mrs. Reed have any sympathy for her. Believing that Jane is pretending to be afraid, Mrs. Reed vows that Jane will be freed only if she maintains “perfect stillness and submission.” When everyone leaves, Jane faints.
Jane awakens in her own bedroom, surrounded by the sound of muffled voices. She is still frightened but also aware that someone is handling her more tenderly than she has ever been touched before. She feels secure when she recognizes Bessie and Mr. Lloyd, an apothecary, standing near the bed. Bessie is kind to Jane and even tells another servant that she thinks Mrs. Reed was too hard on Jane. Jane spends the next day reading, and Bessie sings her a song.
After a conversation with Jane, Mr. Lloyd recommends that Mrs. Reed send her away to school. Jane is excited about leaving Gateshead and beginning a new life. Overhearing a conversation between Miss Abbot and Bessie, Jane learns that her father was a poor clergyman who married her mother against her family’s wishes. As a result, Jane’s grandfather Reed disinherited his daughter. A year after their marriage, Jane’s father caught typhus while visiting the poor, and both of her parents soon died within a month of each other and left Jane orphaned.
Konu AyLa tarafından (12-01-2013 Saat 06:14 PM ) değiştirilmiştir.
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